„Magnets in Your Future“ vol. 7 No. 2 (1993) 16-18.


It is well known that using iron dust, spread on a sheet of cardboard, placed below the pole of a permanent magnet, the magnetic intensity lines of a permanent magnetic field can be illustrated. The iron dust builds the classical star pattern, as in Fig. 1.
fig. 1
If, however an iron dust floats on a water surface in a vessel placed over magnetic pole, the dust forms circular structures, as in Fig. 2,3,4.

fig. 2
fig. 3
fig. 4






After having published my observed experiment, first in the European Journal of Physics /1/, and later in Deutche Physik /2/ different contrary interpretations have been obtained regarding the reason for the appearance of the circles /3/4/5.
This article treats my further observations on the movement of the iron dust at the origin and formation of the circular structures. It is the relation between the observed experiment and a part of the hypothetical cause that is being searched both for the formation of the circles and for the strange (in my opinion) movement of the iron dust, without using a mathematical language.The experiment is carried out in a thin transparent glass vessel with a bottom area of about 150 cm2, placed on one of the poles of a permanent magnet. The magnet is separated from the vessel by means of a white sheet of paper for better contrast. Cold water level varies between 5 and 30 mm and shall be established experimentally. As experimental dust, dust from the magnet separator of a grinding machine has been used (previously dried). Experiment can be observed from beneath the level of the liquid. A magnifying glass should be used for this observation.Now, let us take a pinch of this dust with dry fingers, to rub it between the fingers and put it back on the place we have taken it from. Very little dust remains stuck to the fingers, which in fact is the experimental material required. Let’s then rub it off vigorously and powerfully onto the water surface, but not over the place where the magnet pole is situated, but away from it (at the far end of the vessel). Then the following will be observed: The particles, fallen on the water surface will be oriented to the center of the vessel, in the direction of the magnet and will slowly move towards it.Just in a second, they will increase their speed and will change their direction, following the traectory of a circle. The particles are joining together on their way, forming arcs, which then continue on this invisible circular line („orbite“) as if drifted by a certain circular flow and they stop in the zone, where the formation of rings starts from. The particles individually or joint in arcs, show some selectivity to inner or outer orbite. They rearrange until an energetically stable ring system is obtained. Should we try to destroy the rings by means of a stirrer, they again aspire to take, by grouping together, their energetically favorable position.

While observing the iron dust behavior in the above described experiment in my mind arises the question: „What we know and what we do not know about magnetism?“ According to the two theories of magnetism: „The theory of the elementary currents“ and „The theory of the magnetic masses“ arises the question: „Whether it is possible the elementary current, respectively the magnetic charges be situated and influence each other on circles, bearing all the signs of the magnetic circular effect or an analogy with an electrical field is possible where it is assumed that the pole is considered as a spot-type pole.“ Is then in this particular case, my formulation, which appeared as a result of many observations, valid? – „Where concentric circles or spirals are observed, there exists a cause starting from their center?“ Then arises the question: What is the law of force to which the particles moving on a circular line subordinate?

Undoubtedly, the surface tension has its substantial share in the rings formation, but isn’t this observed phenomenon a secondary effect behind which an obscure magnetism property is hidden?

And after all rings can be observed not only because of magnetism, even magnetism was late with its ring structures. They the ring structures were missing as if only at magnetism. Rings can be observed in the mechanical-, electrical and optic phenomena. At first sight the „Magnetic-Circular effect“ is an isolated phenomenon, but it is hardly so. There are deep interrelations existing in nature – circular is not only the particles movement, but the movement of the particles and bodies of the micro and macro world. Probably the movement of the particles observed in the described experiment subordinate to the same force laws? Here, we could find the utility of the „Magnet-Circular effect“, which generalizing the phenomena, has the meaning, in a broad sense, of the term „Physical reality“.


1. Dichev H: „European Journal of Physics“ 12 101 1991

2. Dichev H. „Deutsche Physik“ 1/2/44 1992

3. Marinov S. „Deutsche Physiks“ 1/2/45 1992

4. Monstein Ch. „Deutsche Physik 1/4/12 1992

5. Haselwimmer K. „European Journal of Physics“ 13/145-151/1992

6. Hofman H. „Das electromagnitische Field“ /3.156/1974


28. март 2015 by hrdichev
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